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1.Rape Culture: -

  Rape culture is a sociological concept for a setting in which rape is pervasive and normalized due to societal attitudes about gender and sexuality. ... It has been used to  areas where war rape is used as psychological warfare. Now, should we treat women as independent agents, responsible for themselves? Of course. But being responsible has nothing to do with being raped. Women don't get raped because they were drinking or took drugs. Women do not get raped because they weren't careful enough. Women get raped because someone raped them.” With the advent of 21st century where we are considered to be technologically advanced we still witness such brutal and heinous crimes around us. Out of everything RAPE should be the last thing we must be hearing of. It is very sad to see people moving with last minute sympathy than actually trying to change the regressive system which not many are not aware of. Statistics say that India on an average recorded 88 rape cases daily in 2019 .


  INTRODUCTION The word “Alibi” is derived from Latin which means “elsewhere” or “somewhere else”. It is used as a defence by the person who is accused, in criminal proceedings. When the accused makes a plea of alibi, it means that the accused is trying to convey and convince the court that he is at some other place at the time when the crime happened. Generally, a plea of alibi states that the suspect was not there at the crime spot and time of the performance of a crime owing to the excuse that he was at some other place. According to criminal law, the burden of proving that he was absent at the crime spot, lies on the accused. ILLUSTRATION :  On a certain day A got murdered at Vijayawada. B was accused in this case but he is in Vizag when the crime had happened. Now B can make a plea of Alibi in the court. Here B must prove that he/she is in Vizag, at the time the crime was committed.   SECTIONS DEALING WITH PLEA OF ALIBI Section 11 of the Indian Evidence Act “When facts not otherwi


    Elements Of The Law Of Commercial Transactions In the 20th century, domestic as well as  international commerce  experienced an expansion far beyond any earlier dimensions. With the multiplication of commercial transactions, the demand for  legal  certainty increased, especially for transactions across national boundaries. Contractual relations The first response to the multitude of practically identical transactions was the standardization of contracts. Printed standard contracts or forms laid down those provisions that are essential in the eyes of the drafting party. It depended upon the relative economic strength of the other party whether departures from the printed form could be negotiated. Trade associations as well as individual enterprises developed and elaborated forms and standard contracts for their members. The same technique of standardization was adopted for international transactions. The forms and standard contracts of certain well-known trade associations, especial


  There are 3 different types of constitutions, the unitary form, the federal form, and the confederation. The example of a unitary form of constitution is U.K.. There is a single government and the states are not vested with powers . This is a centralized form of constitution and talks about concentration of powers at the higher level In a federal form, the powers are divided btw the Centre and the state and they work complementary to each other. This form works on the principle of decentralization and there are usually 2 or more levels of government. Example the USA. Confederation is an alliance or a group formed for some common place successful for some period of time but sometimes they work against the charter ex, European union. Features of a federal constitution: Two levels of government-  there should be 2 levels of govt i.e., govt for whole nation and the regional level. In India we have 2 levels of the government . In India the state government cannot be done away with except

Trespass to Land

  Introduction: Trespass to land is including unlawful interference with the possession of personal property. The interference is direct or indirect by the some tangible object. It can be committed either by a person himself entering the land of another person or doing the same through some material object like if you throwing the stone to another person’s land is consider as a trespass to the land, driving nails into the wall, placing ladder against the wall or debris upon the roof is all consider the trespass to the land. Elements to prove Trespass:  Lack of Consent: To prove trespass the essential element is to prove the interference in the land is without the consent of the land owner.  Harm which is caused: To prove trespass we need to prove first that what harm is caused by the person with the plaintiff’s possession of land. Intentionally: The interference of the possession of land must be intentional, without any wrongful intention there is no trespass to the land.  In the case


  What are General Defences in Torts? When a plaintiff brings an action against the defendant for a particular tort or violation of legal right, resulting in legal damages, and successfully proves the essentials of a tort, the defendant is held liable. However few exceptions are there in which the defendant can plead some defences which can help him in absolving from liabilities. Private Defence Among the general defences in tort, private defence is the most common. When a defendant tries to protect his body or property or any other person’s property, harms another person by using reasonable force, under an imminent-danger and where there is no time to report instantly to the authority, it is Private Defence. The harm done should be proportional according to the nature of the circumstances. Essential s Imminent Danger There should be an immediate threat over the life or property of the defendant or another person’s property in which there is no time to report to the nearest authority.

Vicarious Liability

  Introduction: Vicarious Liability deal with the cases where one person is liable for another act, generally in any law a person is liable for its owns act and not for others act but in certain cases liability is arises for another person for act done by own. Example of some situation in which liability is arises, like a master is liable for his act of servant act done in the course of the employment, liability arises partner in each others in tort, liability arises in the principle for the tort of his agent. When an agent commit a tort in his court of employment as an agent of his master the master is liable for his act, when the wrongful act is done by one partner in the ordinary course of the business of the firm.  1 st - Principle and Agent In the principle agent one person authorized to another person committed tort, in this case the liability is arises for not only the person who commit the crime but also on the person who authorized her. The authority to do the act can be expre