Constitution of India
A Constitution in broader terms is a set of rules,
That seeks to establish the duties, powers, and functions
It is of the various institutions of government
Regulates the relationship between them and
Defines the relationship between the state and an individual.
Salient Features of The Indian Constitution:
A Written and Lengthy Constitution:
Earlier it had 22parts, 395 articles, and 8 Schedules. Now it has 25 parts 448 articles and 12 schedules. The Constitution of India is the lengthiest in the world like no other constitution in the world contains as many articles. The Constitution of the United States has 7 articles, China has 138, Japan has 103, and Canada has 107 articles.
It is a self-made and framed constitution. India has a single constitution that is followed by the whole country and it is also recognized as the sacred book of the country.
The Constitution declares India to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. The words socialist, integrity, and secular were added in the Preamble of the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment in the year (1976).
Sovereign – means absolute independence.
Socialist – to avoid concentration of wealth in a few hands and will sure it’s equitable distribution.
Secular – There is no state religion in India. Every citizen is free to follow and practice the religion of his\her own choice. The state cannot discriminate among it’s citizens based on religion.
Democratic – It means that the power of the government is rested in the hands of the people. All the citizens enjoy equal political rights.
Republic – It means that the head of the state is not a hereditary monarch but a president who is indirectly elected by the people for a definite period.
A unique blend of rigidity and flexibility.
A patchwork of the Indian Constitution:
It is a beautiful patchwork of the Constitution. The Constitution is often referred to as a patchwork. It has been inspired by various sources. The best features of the various constitutions have been incorporated in our Constitution.
Parliamentary form of democracy:
Indian Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government. President is the nominal head of the state. In actual practice, the government is run by the Prime Minister and other members of councils.
Fundamental Rights and Duties
Directive Principles of State Policy:
It is borrowed from Ireland, which aims to provide social and economic democracy and providing welfare.
There is single citizenship in our country, and it borrowed from United Kingdom.
Universal Adult Franchise
It has been adopted from United States of America, so that the legislature and executive can work appropriately.
There are three types of emergency provisions, national, constitutional, and financial.
It improves the conditions of weaker section of society by providing reservations in the legislature and government jobs in articles 15 and 16.
The Constitution provides for some independent agencies to perform functions allotted to them.
The preamble of the Constitution
A mixture of Unitarianism and Federalism.